RICHARD L. W. CLARKE


 

 

 

LITS2306 2008 - 2009

MODULE ONE: TOWARDS A SCIENCE OF LITERATURE

The Term Paper is now online.
 

WEEK ONE: INTRODUCTION / WHAT IS LITERARY THEORY?
(Week of September 1)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1:
  • Introductory Matters
  • What is 'Theory'?
  • What is Literary Theory?
  • What is Literary Criticism?
Summaries:
LECTURE 2
  • Abrams, M. H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Ch. 1 "Introduction: Orientation of Critical Theories" (pp. 3-29):
    • "Mimetic Theories" (pp. 8-14)
    • "Pragmatic Theories" (pp. 14-21)
    • "Objective Theories" (pp. 26-29)
    • "Expressive Theories" (pp. 21-26)1
Summaries:
TUTORIAL
  • None this week
 

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  •  

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK TWO: REPRESENTATION AND FORM (PROSE FICTION): REALISM & NATURALISM
(Week of September 8)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1 Summaries:
LECTURE 2 Summaries:
TUTORIAL3 Summaries:

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Representation:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Mimesis."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  233-237.4
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Realism."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  323-330.
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Reference."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  330-337.
  • Literary Form and Genre:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Genre."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  115-120.
  • Prose Fiction:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Narrative."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  255-258.
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Narratology."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  258-266.
  • Ninteenth Century Realism and Naturalism:
    • Harland, Richard Literary Theory: from Plato to Barthes: Ch. 6 "Naturalism, Symbolism and Modernism": "French Naturalists" (pp. 98-103)s

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK THREE: REPRESENTATION AND FORM (POETRY): THE NEW CRITICISM
(Week of September 15)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1 Summaries:
LECTURE 2 Summaries:
TUTORIAL
  • Derek Walcott "The Muse of History" [1974] (pp. 36-64 in his What the Twilight Says: Essays; pp. 1-27 in Is Massa Day Done?, ed. Orde Coombs; abbreviated version in Caribbean Critics, ed. Edward Baugh)
Summaries:

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Literary Form and Genre:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Formalism."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  108-114.
  • Poetry:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Poetics."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  410-416.  288-291.
  • New Criticism:
    • Harland, Richard Literary Theory: from Plato to Barthes: Ch. 9 "Anglo-American Criticism, 1900-1960":
      • "The New Criticism: Southern Phase" (pp. 182-184)
      • "The New Criticism: Hegemonic Phase" (pp. 187-194)

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK FOUR: THE AUTHOR AND LITERARY HISTORY: MODERNISM / MYTH CRITICISM
(Week of September 22)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1: Summaries:
LECTURE 2: Summaries:
TUTORIAL Summaries:
  • See notes from Week 3 above

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Author:
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Author."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  15-20.
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Intention."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  163-172.
  • Literary History:

    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Canon."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  21-27. 
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Classic."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  27-30. 
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Evaluation."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  81-88.
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Historicism."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  143-152.
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Intertextuality."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  175-178. 
    • Harris, Wendell V.  "Literary History."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  185-193.
  • Modernism / Myth Criticism:
    • Harland, Richard Literary Theory: from Plato to Barthes:
      • Ch. 5 "Social Theories of the 19th Century": 
        • "Mathew Arnold" (pp. 87-90)
      • Ch. 6 "Naturalism, Symbolism and Modernism":
        • "Modernism and the Avant-Garde" (pp. 113-116)
        • "T. S. Eliot" (pp. 120-124)
      • Ch. 9 "Anglo-American Criticism, 1900-1960":
        • "Myth Criticism and Northrop Frye" (pp. 194-199)

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK FIVE: THE READER
(Week of September 29)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1:

[see also the notes on Arnold's "The Study of Poetry" above]

Summaries:
LECTURE 2: Summaries:
TUTORIAL Summaries:

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Harris, Wendell V.  "Reader."  Dictionary of Concepts in Literary Criticism and Theory.  Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1992.  313-323.
  • Harland, Richard Literary Theory: from Plato to Barthes:
    • Ch. 5 "Social Theories of the 19th Century": "Mathew Arnold" (pp. 87-90)
    • Ch. 9 "Anglo-American Criticism, 1900-1960": "Richards and Empson" (pp. 168-176)

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK SIX: EARLY MODERN THOUGHT:
EMPIRICISM v. RATIONALISM ON THE NATURE OF THE MIND, THE SELF, AND KNOWLEDGE6
(Week of October 6)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1:
Empiricism
  • Francis Bacon The New Organon [1620]: Book I: Aphorisms 1-53 (see extract entitled "Experimental Methods and True Causes," pp. 303-310 in Cottingham)
  • John Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding [1690]:

    • Book I: Chs. 1 and 2: "The Senses as the Basis of Knowledge" (see pp. 26-32 in Cottingham)

    • Book II:
      • Ch. 8 "Qualities and Ideas" (pp. 80-85 in Cottingham)
      • Ch. 27 "The Self and Consciousness" (pp. 187-192 in Cottingham)
Summaries:
LECTURE 2:
Rationalism
  • René Descartes Meditations on First Philosophy [1641]:
    • Meditations I and II (see extract entitled "New Foundations for Knowledge," pp. 22-26 in Cottingham)
    • Meditations II and VI (see extract entitled "The Incorporeal Mind," pp. 145-152 in Cottingham)
  • Immanuel Kant Critique of Pure Reason [1781]: see extract entitled "Experience and Understanding," pp. 41-45 in Cottingham

Summaries:
TUTORIAL7
  • I. A. Richards The Meaning of Meaning [1923]: Chapter 1 "Thoughts, Words and Things" (see extract, pp. 140-143 in Richards on Rhetoric, ed. Ann E.  Berthoff)

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Grayling, A. C.  "Modern Philosophy II: the Empiricists."  Philosophy: a Guide Through the SubjectOxford: OUP, 1995.  484-544.
  • Scruton, Roger.  "Modern Philosophy I: the Rationalists and Kant."  Philosophy: a Guide Through the SubjectOxford: OUP, 1995.  440-483.

PHILWEB RESOURCES

WEEK SEVEN: ANCIENT / CLASSICAL THOUGHT I: ARISTOTLE8
(Week of October 13)
 

REQUIRED READINGS

 

 

LECTURE 1:
Aristotle's wider philosophical project
  • Aristotle [all readings c. 335 - c.320 BCE]
    • Categories (see excerpt "Individual Substance," pp. 70-74 in Cottingham)
    • Posterior Analytics (see excerpt "Demonstrative Knowledge and its Starting-points," pp. 19-22 in Cottingham)
    • Physics: The Four Causes (see excerpt "Four Types of Explanation," pp. 301-303 in Cottingham)
Summaries:
LECTURE 2:
Aristotle on literature
  • Aristotle Poetics (Butcher translation, pp. 50-66 in Adams; Janko translation, pp. 90-117 in Leitch)
Summaries:
TUTORIAL:
Aristotle on Rhetoric
Summaries:

RECOMMENDED READINGS

  • Lawson-Tancred, Hugh.  "Ancient Greek Philosophy II: Aristotle."  Philosophy: a Guide Through the Subject.  Ed. A. C. Grayling.  Oxford: OUP, 1995.  398-439.

PHILWEB RESOURCES

FOOTNOTES
 

* Please read the handouts marked with an asterisk on your own.

  1. Where they exist, I will link the Required Readings to online sources.  Otherwise, these may be found in the anthologies on reserve (see Booklist) or, sometimes, in the FOLDER kept behind the circulation desk in the Main Library.

  2. Don't forget to download the notes and bring them to the lectures and the tutorial, as required.

  3. Note that tutorials commence in Week Two.

  4. The items by Wendell Harris are brief but very useful, detailled dictionary entries.  The book may be found in the Reference Section of the Library from where it cannot be removed.  Please photocopy what you need and return the book to the shelf to allow others to make use of it.

  5. NB: I am not posting notes on Wimsatt and Beardsley.  Please read the original articles for yourself.

  6. I would like you to merely browse the required readings for the lectures this week.  It's a lot to take in but our goal is not to understand the precise arguments of any/all these thinkers in great detail.  Rather, the objective is to gather an overview of the different perspectives separating these two groups, the Empiricists and the Rationalists, on the nature of the mind, the self and knowledge and the foundation which these provided for the development of modern science.  You are not required to print and bring to class the lecture notes for this week because I will distribute handouts in the lectures summarising the main points which I would like you to digest from the readings.

  7. As usual, please print and bring to your tutorial the summary of the required reading, in this case, Richards' "Thoughts, Words and Things."  Our focus in the tutorial this week is on Richards' theory of language, an influential view which shaped the work of the Modernists, Myth Critics and New Critics during the first half of the twentieth century in their quest to establish a science of literary criticism.  Hopefully, we will realise that Richards' views on the production of meaning are derived from the arguments of the Rationalists and Empiricists of the Early Modern period, not least Bacon, on the nature of the mind, the self and knowledge.

  8. Please browse lecture notes 07A, 07B and 07C on your own.  However, you don't have to bring a printed copy of these to class as I will bring a summary of Aristotle's philosophy.  Please bring 07D to the second lecture (i.e. on Thursday) and 07E to your tutorial.

  9. Because of the time lost to the inclement weather and Miss Cain's illness, I have decided that we will not be worry to do Aristotle's Rhetoric in the tutorial this week.  We will instead use the time to catch up, as it were, by finishing off Richards's "Thoughts, Words and Things" and any other readings that are outstanding.

END OF MODULE ONE
 

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